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BigInteger TWO = new BigInteger("1");
Based on 134 examples
public class BigInteger extends Number implements Comparable
Immutable arbitraryprecision integers. All operations behave as if BigIntegers were represented in two'scomplement notation (like Java's primitive integer types). BigInteger provides analogues to all of Java's primitive integer operators, and all relevant methods from java.lang.Math. Additionally, BigInteger provides operations for modular arithmetic, GCD calculation, primality testing, prime generation, bit manipulation, and a few other miscellaneous operations.
Semantics of arithmetic operations exactly mimic those of Java's integer arithmetic operators, as defined in The Java Language Specification. For example, division by zero throws an ArithmeticException, and division of a negative by a positive yields a negative (or zero) remainder. All of the details in the Spec concerning overflow are ignored, as BigIntegers are made as large as necessary to accommodate the results of an operation.
Semantics of shift operations extend those of Java's shift operators to allow for negative shift distances. A rightshift with a negative shift distance results in a left shift, and viceversa. The unsigned right shift operator (>>>) is omitted, as this operation makes little sense in combination with the "infinite word size" abstraction provided by this class.
Semantics of bitwise logical operations exactly mimic those of Java's bitwise integer operators. The binary operators (and, or, xor) implicitly perform sign extension on the shorter of the two operands prior to performing the operation.
Comparison operations perform signed integer comparisons, analogous to those performed by Java's relational and equality operators.
Modular arithmetic operations are provided to compute residues, perform exponentiation, and compute multiplicative inverses. These methods always return a nonnegative result, between 0 and (modulus  1), inclusive.
Bit operations operate on a single bit of the two'scomplement representation of their operand. If necessary, the operand is sign extended so that it contains the designated bit. None of the singlebit operations can produce a BigInteger with a different sign from the BigInteger being operated on, as they affect only a single bit, and the "infinite word size" abstraction provided by this class ensures that there are infinitely many "virtual sign bits" preceding each BigInteger.
For the sake of brevity and clarity, pseudocode is used throughout the descriptions of BigInteger methods. The pseudocode expression (i + j) is shorthand for "a BigInteger whose value is that of the BigInteger i plus that of the BigInteger j." The pseudocode expression (i == j) is shorthand for "true if and only if the BigInteger i represents the same value as the BigInteger j." Other pseudocode expressions are interpreted similarly.
All methods and constructors in this class throw
NullPointerException
when passed
a null object reference for any input parameter.
Field Summary  

static BigInteger 
ONE
The BigInteger constant one. 
static BigInteger 
TEN
The BigInteger constant ten. 
static BigInteger 
ZERO
The BigInteger constant zero. 
Constructor Summary  

BigInteger(byte[] val) Translates a byte array containing the two'scomplement binary representation of a BigInteger into a BigInteger. 

BigInteger(int signum, byte[] magnitude) Translates the signmagnitude representation of a BigInteger into a BigInteger. 

BigInteger(int bitLength, int certainty, Random rnd) Constructs a randomly generated positive BigInteger that is probably prime, with the specified bitLength. 

BigInteger(int numBits, Random rnd) Constructs a randomly generated BigInteger, uniformly distributed over the range 0 to (2^{numBits}  1), inclusive. 

BigInteger(String val) Translates the decimal String representation of a BigInteger into a BigInteger. 

BigInteger(String val, int radix) Translates the String representation of a BigInteger in the specified radix into a BigInteger. 
Method Summary  

BigInteger 
abs() Returns a BigInteger whose value is the absolute value of this BigInteger. 
BigInteger 
add(BigInteger val) Returns a BigInteger whose value is (this + val). 
BigInteger 
and(BigInteger val) Returns a BigInteger whose value is (this & val). 
BigInteger 
andNot(BigInteger val) Returns a BigInteger whose value is (this & ~val). 
int 
bitCount() Returns the number of bits in the two's complement representation of this BigInteger that differ from its sign bit. 
int 
Returns the number of bits in the minimal two'scomplement representation of this BigInteger, excluding a sign bit. 
BigInteger 
clearBit(int n) Returns a BigInteger whose value is equivalent to this BigInteger with the designated bit cleared. 
int 
compareTo(BigInteger val) Compares this BigInteger with the specified BigInteger. 
BigInteger 
divide(BigInteger val) Returns a BigInteger whose value is (this / val). 
BigInteger[] 
Returns an array of two BigIntegers containing (this / val) followed by (this % val). 
double 
Converts this BigInteger to a double .

boolean 
Compares this BigInteger with the specified Object for equality. 
BigInteger 
flipBit(int n) Returns a BigInteger whose value is equivalent to this BigInteger with the designated bit flipped. 
float 
Converts this BigInteger to a float .

BigInteger 
gcd(BigInteger val) Returns a BigInteger whose value is the greatest common divisor of abs(this) and abs(val). 
int 
Returns the index of the rightmost (lowestorder) one bit in this BigInteger (the number of zero bits to the right of the rightmost one bit). 
int 
hashCode() Returns the hash code for this BigInteger. 
int 
intValue() Converts this BigInteger to an int .

boolean 
isProbablePrime(int certainty) Returns true if this BigInteger is probably prime, false if it's definitely composite. 
long 
Converts this BigInteger to a long .

BigInteger 
max(BigInteger val) Returns the maximum of this BigInteger and val. 
BigInteger 
min(BigInteger val) Returns the minimum of this BigInteger and val. 
BigInteger 
mod(BigInteger m) Returns a BigInteger whose value is (this mod m). 
BigInteger 
Returns a BigInteger whose value is (this^{1} mod m). 
BigInteger 
modPow(BigInteger exponent, BigInteger m) Returns a BigInteger whose value is (this^{exponent} mod m). 
BigInteger 
multiply(BigInteger val) Returns a BigInteger whose value is (this * val). 
BigInteger 
negate() Returns a BigInteger whose value is (this). 
BigInteger 
Returns the first integer greater than this BigInteger that
is probably prime.

BigInteger 
not() Returns a BigInteger whose value is (~this). 
BigInteger 
or(BigInteger val) Returns a BigInteger whose value is (this  val). 
BigInteger 
pow(int exponent) Returns a BigInteger whose value is (this^{exponent}). 
static BigInteger 
probablePrime(int bitLength, Random rnd) Returns a positive BigInteger that is probably prime, with the specified bitLength. 
BigInteger 
remainder(BigInteger val) Returns a BigInteger whose value is (this % val). 
BigInteger 
setBit(int n) Returns a BigInteger whose value is equivalent to this BigInteger with the designated bit set. 
BigInteger 
shiftLeft(int n) Returns a BigInteger whose value is (this << n). 
BigInteger 
shiftRight(int n) Returns a BigInteger whose value is (this >> n). 
int 
signum() Returns the signum function of this BigInteger. 
BigInteger 
subtract(BigInteger val) Returns a BigInteger whose value is (this  val). 
boolean 
testBit(int n) Returns true if and only if the designated bit is set. 
byte[] 
Returns a byte array containing the two'scomplement representation of this BigInteger. 
String 
toString() Returns the decimal String representation of this BigInteger. 
String 
toString(int radix) Returns the String representation of this BigInteger in the given radix. 
static BigInteger 
valueOf(long val) Returns a BigInteger whose value is equal to that of the specified long .

BigInteger 
xor(BigInteger val) Returns a BigInteger whose value is (this ^ val). 
Methods inherited from class java.lang.Number 

byteValue, doubleValue, floatValue, intValue, longValue, shortValue 
Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object 

clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait 
Field Detail 

public static final BigInteger ONE
public static final BigInteger TEN
public static final BigInteger ZERO
Constructor Detail 

public BigInteger(byte[] val)
val
 bigendian two'scomplement binary representation of
BigInteger.public BigInteger(int signum, byte[] magnitude)
signum
 signum of the number (1 for negative, 0 for zero, 1
for positive).magnitude
 bigendian binary representation of the magnitude of
the number.public BigInteger(int bitLength, int certainty, Random rnd)
It is recommended that the {@link #probablePrime probablePrime} method be used in preference to this constructor unless there is a compelling need to specify a certainty.
bitLength
 bitLength of the returned BigInteger.certainty
 a measure of the uncertainty that the caller is
willing to tolerate. The probability that the new BigInteger
represents a prime number will exceed
(1  1/2^{certainty}). The execution time of
this constructor is proportional to the value of this parameter.rnd
 source of random bits used to select candidates to be
tested for primality.public BigInteger(int numBits, Random rnd)
numBits
 maximum bitLength of the new BigInteger.rnd
 source of randomness to be used in computing the new
BigInteger.public BigInteger(String val)
val
 decimal String representation of BigInteger.public BigInteger(String val, int radix)
val
 String representation of BigInteger.radix
 radix to be used in interpreting val.Method Detail 

public BigInteger abs()
public BigInteger add(BigInteger val)
val
 value to be added to this BigInteger.public BigInteger and(BigInteger val)
val
 value to be AND'ed with this BigInteger.public BigInteger andNot(BigInteger val)
val
 value to be complemented and AND'ed with this BigInteger.public int bitCount()
public int bitLength()
public BigInteger clearBit(int n)
n
 index of bit to clear.public int compareTo(BigInteger val)
val
 BigInteger to which this BigInteger is to be compared.public BigInteger divide(BigInteger val)
val
 value by which this BigInteger is to be divided.public BigInteger[] divideAndRemainder(BigInteger val)
val
 value by which this BigInteger is to be divided, and the
remainder computed.public double doubleValue()
double
. This
conversion is similar to the narrowing
primitive conversion from double
to
float
defined in the Java Language
Specification: if this BigInteger has too great a magnitude
to represent as a double
, it will be converted to
{@link Double#NEGATIVE_INFINITY} or {@link
Double#POSITIVE_INFINITY} as appropriate. Note that even when
the return value is finite, this conversion can lose
information about the precision of the BigInteger value.
doubleValue
in class Number
double
.public boolean equals(Object x)
equals
in class Object
x
 Object to which this BigInteger is to be compared.public BigInteger flipBit(int n)
n
 index of bit to flip.public float floatValue()
float
. This
conversion is similar to the narrowing
primitive conversion from double
to
float
defined in the Java Language
Specification: if this BigInteger has too great a magnitude
to represent as a float
, it will be converted to
{@link Float#NEGATIVE_INFINITY} or {@link
Float#POSITIVE_INFINITY} as appropriate. Note that even when
the return value is finite, this conversion can lose
information about the precision of the BigInteger value.
floatValue
in class Number
float
.public BigInteger gcd(BigInteger val)
val
 value with which the GCD is to be computed.public int getLowestSetBit()
public int hashCode()
hashCode
in class Object
public int intValue()
int
. This
conversion is analogous to a narrowing
primitive conversion from long
to
int
as defined in the Java Language
Specification: if this BigInteger is too big to fit in an
int
, only the loworder 32 bits are returned.
Note that this conversion can lose information about the
overall magnitude of the BigInteger value as well as return a
result with the opposite sign.
intValue
in class Number
int
.public boolean isProbablePrime(int certainty)
certainty
 a measure of the uncertainty that the caller is
willing to tolerate: if the call returns true
the probability that this BigInteger is prime exceeds
(1  1/2^{certainty}). The execution time of
this method is proportional to the value of this parameter.public long longValue()
long
. This
conversion is analogous to a narrowing
primitive conversion from long
to
int
as defined in the Java Language
Specification: if this BigInteger is too big to fit in a
long
, only the loworder 64 bits are returned.
Note that this conversion can lose information about the
overall magnitude of the BigInteger value as well as return a
result with the opposite sign.
longValue
in class Number
long
.public BigInteger max(BigInteger val)
val
 value with which the maximum is to be computed.public BigInteger min(BigInteger val)
val
 value with which the minimum is to be computed.public BigInteger mod(BigInteger m)
m
 the modulus.public BigInteger modInverse(BigInteger m)
m
 the modulus.public BigInteger modPow(BigInteger exponent, BigInteger m)
exponent
 the exponent.m
 the modulus.public BigInteger multiply(BigInteger val)
val
 value to be multiplied by this BigInteger.public BigInteger negate()
public BigInteger nextProbablePrime()
BigInteger
that
is probably prime. The probability that the number returned by this
method is composite does not exceed 2^{100}. This method will
never skip over a prime when searching: if it returns p, there
is no prime q such that this < q < p.
BigInteger
that
is probably prime.public BigInteger not()
public BigInteger or(BigInteger val)
val
 value to be OR'ed with this BigInteger.public BigInteger pow(int exponent)
exponent
 exponent to which this BigInteger is to be raised.public static BigInteger probablePrime(int bitLength, Random rnd)
bitLength
 bitLength of the returned BigInteger.rnd
 source of random bits used to select candidates to be
tested for primality.public BigInteger remainder(BigInteger val)
val
 value by which this BigInteger is to be divided, and the
remainder computed.public BigInteger setBit(int n)
n
 index of bit to set.public BigInteger shiftLeft(int n)
n
 shift distance, in bits.public BigInteger shiftRight(int n)
n
 shift distance, in bits.public int signum()
public BigInteger subtract(BigInteger val)
val
 value to be subtracted from this BigInteger.public boolean testBit(int n)
n
 index of bit to test.public byte[] toByteArray()
public String toString()
toString
in class Object
public String toString(int radix)
int
)} constructor.)
radix
 radix of the String representation.public static BigInteger valueOf(long val)
long
. This "static factory method" is
provided in preference to a (long
) constructor
because it allows for reuse of frequently used BigIntegers.
val
 value of the BigInteger to return.public BigInteger xor(BigInteger val)
val
 value to be XOR'ed with this BigInteger.
 
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